Unfortunately, for the indoor cultivation of marijuana, artificial light is necessary, since, for the growth and proper formation of marijuana plants, a certain lighting regime is required to promote the development of the psychoactive and healing properties of cannabis.
Through the process of photosynthesis, it turns the energy of light into the energy of chemicals. The main role in this transformation is played by the photosynthetic pigment — chlorophyll. It plays the role of a kind of «antenna» that absorbs the energy radiated by the sun. Then it is stored inside cannabis using biological membranes. This process can be represented in the form of a certain ability, due to which the absorption and use of the quantum energy of light for the transformation of carbon dioxide into organic matter take place. They are necessary for marijuana to build your own body and perform various catabolic processes.
However, hemp doesn’t need all of the light as a whole, but only its individual spectra. The most significant types are:
Blue with a wavelength of 430-470 nm. It is especially needed during the growing season. With its help, the production of chlorophyll B, necessary for the development of the root system, foliage, and branches
Red with a wavelength of 620-700 nm. It plays an important role in the flowering process of hemp. With its help, chlorophyll A is created, which is responsible for strengthening the roots and forming buds
Infrared radiation with a wavelength range between 730 nm and 30 microns. It is used by the plant to accelerate metabolism, which leads to an increase in the rate of growth and development
Ultraviolet radiation. Its wavelength varies from 10 to 400 nm. Cannabis needs it to produce tar, which in nature protects the plant from negative environmental factors. Its increased amount will positively affect the quality of the cones.
According to https://dr-weedy.com/, in the closed ground, hemp lighting is completely on the shoulders of the grower. Without an artificial light source, he simply can not operate. Lamps for growing hemp must have sufficient power and the correct spectral composition of light so that the plant can fully realize the growth potential and yield. The most common lamps in the Grover environment today are:
Sodium gas discharge (DNaT): Until recently, it was considered the best lamp for the cultivation of cannabis. They emit increased proportions of red and blue spectra, which allows the patch to feel comfortable. The main disadvantage of DNaT lamps is that they become very hot during operation. As a result, the air temperature in the grow box rises significantly, and this is a problem for the grower. When using sodium discharge lamps, ventilation is indispensable. They also need special lights, and they are environmentally unsafe.
Energy Saving (ESL): Such lamps consume much less electricity than sodium. They practically don’t heat up during operation, which only slightly affects the temperature in the box. However, for the cultivation of cannabis, only 2 ESL types are best suited — 2700k and 6400k. For full lighting, the grower will have to use two at the same time, since the blue spectrum dominates in the one and the red spectrum in the second. They can also be used alone for lightning
LED phytolamps (LED): Special LED phytolamps are considered the most suitable for growing hemp today. Their cost has fallen significantly over the past few years, and therefore the average grower can easily afford them. They consume very little power and do not heat up during operation. Their maximum temperature is 40 degrees. There is a bicolor, a multicolor and a full range of LED phytolamps.